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2. Self and others(9)

Personal Relationships Carl Rogers, the famous psychoilogist who is known as the father of counselling psychology, argued that our level of self-esteem depends on the type of personal-relationships that we have had. People, Rogers argued, …

2. Self and others(8) The self-fulfilling prophecy

The self-fulfilling prophecy 自己充足的予言 What this shows is that sometimes other people’s ideas about us may become a self-fulfilling prophecy. In other words, what we think about someone may come true simply because we think it. One of…

2. Self and others(7)

Social Relationships 社会的関係 As early as 1902, Cooley described the self-concept as the `looking-glass self’. What Cooley mean was that we see ourselves as if we were reflected in the eyes of other people. We don’t just think of ourselv…

2. Self and others(6)

Even though parents become attached to their infants very quickly, it takes longer for the infant to develop its own attachment. Although infants often prefer to be with one person rather than someone else, in the first few months they are…

2. Self and others(5)

Developing Attachment 愛着の発達 It used to be believed that infants developed attachments with the people who looked after them purely because of the association with physical care and satisfying hunger. This led to number of debates, suc…

2. Self and others(4)

So even an apparently helpless infant is equipped to interact with other people – in other words, to be sociable. Babies will respond to the sound of people’s voices, they show pleasure when people are nearby and socializing with them, and…

2. Self and others(3)

Babies also have a very good way of summoning help when they need it. Since the human infant can’t run for help itself, it needs to have a way of summoning help from its caretaker quickly. And it has. A baby’s crying can carry for a very l…

2. Self and others(2)

Human infants, when they are first born, are totally helpless physically. They have to be fed, cleaned and carried around by other, older humans, and without this would not be able to survive. This physical helpless continues for a very lo…

2. Self and others(1)

In this chapter you will learning * why sociability in human babies is so important * how other people can change the way we feel abut ourselves * to identify three different cultural approaches to understanding ourselves. この章で学ぶべき…

1. Introducing psychology(8) - 10 Things to Remember

1 Psychology is about understanding people. People are complicated and there are no simple answer. 1 心理学は人間を理解する学問である。人間は複雑で、単純な回答はない。 2 Early psychologists used introspection – analyzing their own thought…

Introducing psychology(7)

Areas of psychology Psychology, as we’ve seen, is about people. But people have complex lives, and we need to gather information about them in many different ways. So professional psychologists need to understand the different areas of psy…

1. Introducing psychology(6)

In other words, we can look at the same thing using different levels of explanation. One psychologist studying reading might use a very general level, such as looking at cultural influences on human behaviour. Another might approach it at …

1. Introducing psychology(5)

Levels of explanation One of the most important lessons that we have learned from the history of psychology is that just looking one single aspect of experience of behaviour isn’t enough. People do things for lots of different reasons, and…

1. Introducing psychology(4)

Studying the Mind Early psychologists explored how the mind works by thinking about it, and trying to analyse the thoughts they were experiencing. This is known as introspection, and this method gave us quite a few insights into memory, at…

1. Introducing psychology(3)

The first part of the word ‘psychology’ comes from the Greek word psyche, which means ‘the soul’, or ‘essence of life’ and is sometimes portrayed as female figure representing the mind. The second part of the word also comes from the Greek…

1. Indroducing psychology(2)

Understanding the mind The problem with trying to understand people, though, is that people are complex, and change all the time. We learn from our experiences, we form good intentions, and we are affected by circumstances. So what we do b…

1. Indroducing psychology(1)

Introducing psychology 心理学の紹介 In this chapter you will learn: * how ‘psychology’ can be defined * the importance of levels of explanation * about some major areas of psychology. この章の課題 * 「心理学」はどのように定義できるか * …